Health Advisory for Pakistan During COVID-19: Reducing Transmission of COVID-19 in Healthcare Settings

Protecting healthcare workers and patients

Advice to hospitals in Pakistan

SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus, is highly efficient in person-to-person transmission, and for a relatively low infective dose. It spreads by respiratory droplets, aerosols and contact. [1] The virus loaded droplets and aerosols can settle on fomites, where it is able to survive on certain surfaces for up to 72 hours. The infected can remain silent carriers for up to 14 days, as the symptoms develop slowly, with approximately a third of patients not developing any symptoms. [1,2] These asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients are still able to shed virus which resides in their lungs. Research is suggesting that the virus’ infectivity peak is before the development of symptoms, and the virus may be shedding up to 37 days in severe cases. [3,4,5]

The majority who develop symptoms manifest breathing difficulties, muscle pains, cough and fever; however, 15% of these cases develop severe pneumonia requiring intensive care. [6] The infected who display mild illness may evolve over a course of a week to recovery or severe respiratory distress depending on their individual factors. Whilst it is reported that the virus has a propensity to affect the elderly, the comorbid and the immunocompromised more severely, this is not exclusive as previously healthy and young individuals have also ended up on ventilators and died.

Evidence suggests that the accrued viral load also plays a role in manifesting severe disease. [7] This is particularly worrying for healthcare workers who repetitively see ill people and get exposed to a high dose of viral load over time and succumb to illness. Several frontline staff across the world have fallen ill and died in the line of duty. Italy’s outbreak figures reveal that 10% of all infections were in healthcare workers. [7]

It is obvious that the detrimental effects of this pandemic cannot be underestimated and represent a national emergency. Pakistan is likely two or three weeks behind its expected peak of COVID-19 cases and associated mortality. There is still limited time to implement safety measures across its hospitals to protect patients and healthcare workers. It is imperative that the healthcare model is changed to enhance safety, including modifications to the clinical and theatre workplace, implementing infection control precautions and sourcing appropriate personal protective equipment.

• Routine clinical work should cease with immediate effect to reduce any excess and avoidable exposure to staff and patients, especially the elderly who are at an increased risk of becoming infected leading to severe illness with a high mortality rate.

• Hospitals and clinics should only prioritise to see those patients who can come to irreversible harm to life, limb or organ, if not treated immediately.

• Patients should be encouraged to arrive at a specific time and wait outside the hospital until called in for their appointment. In-hospital patient waiting areas for the selected patients should be in an open room with good ventilation and windows open. Seating arrangements must be staggered with a gap of 2 metres between seats.

• Patients should attend by themselves or with one carer at maximum.

• Any examination must be focused and the pathways should include being seen by the least number of healthcare professionals possible. This may mean ordering a limited number of focused investigations to assist diagnosis and treatment.

• Staff who are old, co-morbid or ill should be removed from face to face clinical interactions.

• Only operate on absolute emergencies where there is a risk of loss of life or limb or organ.

• Theatre environment should contain the minimum amount of equipment and only the necessary trolleys with prepared instruments should be wheeled in for use.

• General anaesthetic cases should be avoided as far as possible, as intubation is an aerosol generating procedures. Local anaesthetic alternatives should be considered where possible.

• Surgical methods involving high speed drills should be avoided as much as possible, as it generates aerosols. Careful consideration should also be given to ear, nose and throat surgical procedures as well as they are capable of micro-aerosol production.

• Full personal protective equipment must be utilised for all surgical procedures including respirators, eye protection, gloves and gowns to protect staff.

• There should be strict bare below the elbow policy followed throughout the workplace

• Regular handwashing for 20 seconds should be followed by all staff. Patients should also wash hands on entry to the unit and before leaving. Upon arrival at home, they should again wash hands.

• All personnel in the department should instructed to never touch their face. This is to ensure that there is protection of all mucous membranes; eyes, nose and mouth. These are portal of entries of the virus to the body.

• There should be strict non-touch of all surfaces unless unavoidable.

• Staff should not accrue in rooms and maintain a distance of 2m at all times.

• There should not be any face to face meetings, and where possible telephone or e-meetings should be organised instead.

• Clinical interactive surfaces should be cleaned with alcohol-based or bleach-based disinfectants.

• Staff should designate workplace uniform and shoes which should be changed at the workplace, and regularly washed at or above 60 degrees.

• Masks are important for respiratory protection as they cover mucous membranes of nose and mouth.

Surgical masks should be properly moulded to the user’s nasal bridge and are suitable for use if performing non-aerosol generating procedures and examinations on asymptomatic patients. They should also be worn by all healthcare staff even when not interacting with patients to reduce risk of transmission to each other.

• Eye protection is also vital as it shields mucous membranes of the eyes. There should be appropriate use of visors or goggles for close examination of all cases and routine examination of all high-risk cases. If goggles are used, it should be ensured that they snuggly fit around the eye socket.

• Gowns or Aprons should be appropriately used in all high-risk areas to protect dispersal on skin and clothes.

• Proper training for donning and doffing PPE in clinics and theatre environment is essential for all staff. This will ensure reducing risk of self-inoculation and infecting others in the removal and disposal of virus laden protective gear.

• These difficult and testing times will force doctors to take decisions on who to admit, who to ventilate and who to treat when there is insufficient capacity and protective equipment. Institutions should discuss these scenarios in preparation.

• In the situation of inadequate PPE availability, the healthcare workforce should not be pressurised to provide treatment to COVID-19 patients including resuscitation.

• Healthcare staff may have to separate their lives from their families to protect them, and some may have to live apart if they have family members at high risk of dying from COVID-19.

• Doctors should be provided access to mental health support in these difficult times.


The advisory was received from Dr. Hasan Naveed who is an Ophthamology Resident at Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK and Professor Christopher Liu, a Consultant Ophthalmologist at Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, UK.



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2. Lai CC, Liu YH, Wang CY, Wang YH, Hsueh SC, Yen MY, et al. Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2): Facts and myths. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020: S1684-1182(20)30040-2.

3. Zhu Y, Chen YQ. On a Statistical Transmission Model in Analysis of the Early Phase of COVID-19 Outbreak. Stat Biosci. 2020:1–17

4. Zhang J, Litvinova M, Wang W, Wang Y, Deng X, Xiaowei D, et al. Evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei province, China: a descriptive and modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 [published online]. Available at:

5. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020: 395(10229): 1054-62. Available at:

6. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020.

7. Heneghan C, Brassey J, Jefferson T. Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service Team. SARS-CoV-2 viral load and the severity of COVID-19 [online]. 2020.